11. Raising the eyes to the sky during salaat or looking to the right and left without due cause. As far as raising the eyes, it is forbidden and bears the threat of punishment. It is narrated by Jabir Ibn Samurah (radiallahu ‘anhu) who said: The Messenger of allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Let the people stop raising their eyes to the sky in the salaah or let their sight not return to them. [Muslim]
12. As far as looking around unnecessarily, it is a deficiency in the salaah of the worshipper as long as he has not turned his entire body in another direction [i.e. away from the Qiblah]. If however the entire body is turned then the salaah is invalidated. It is narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallahu ‘anhaa) who said: I asked the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) about looking around in the salaah. He said: It is misappropriation pilfered by Shaitaan from the salaah of the worshipper. [Al-Bukhaari]. At-Tirmidhi also collected an authentic hadeeth: Be warned of turning or looking around in the salaah because it is destruction. And there are other ahadeeth on looking around in the salaah.
13. Sitting on one’s haunches (Al-Iq’aa) during the salaah and prostrating with the elbows (Al-Iftiraash) on the ground. Al-Iqaa’ is forbidden as related by Abu Hurairah (radiallahu ‘anhu) who said: My dear friend forbade me three things: He forbade me from pecking like a rooster [just touching the head in prostration – trans], sitting on the haunches like a dog, and looking around like a fox. Transmitted by Ahmed and others and its isnaad (chain) has by graded hasan (good) by Al-Mundhiri and Al-Haithami.
The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) forbade a man from spreading his arms on the ground like a beast of prey. Summarizing a hadeeth collected by Muslim from ‘Aisha (radiallahu ‘anhaa) as well as by At-Tirmidhi, Ahmed and others from Jaabir (radiallahu ‘anhu) marfoo’an (attributable to the Prophet): If any of you prostrates (sajdah) then keep straight and not spread his arms like the sitting of a dog.
14. Wearing a thin (see-through) garment that does not sufficiently cover the ‘auwrah (private area). This is an invalidator of the salaah because covering one’s ‘auwrah is a condition for a sound salaah. The man’s ‘aurah is - according to what is most authentic – from the navel to the knee. Likewise he must cover his shoulders or one of them1 in accordance with the statement of Allah: O children of Aadam wear you adornments to every masjid. [Al-‘Araaf 31] It is sufficient to wear a single garment to cover the ‘auwrah according to what is narrated from ‘Umar Ibn Salamah (radiallahu ‘anhu): He saw the Messenger of allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam praying in a single garment (thowub) in the house of Umm Salamah, he had cast both ends over himself. [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]
Ibn Qudaamah (rahimahullah) stated: It is obligatory to cover sufficiently to hide the color of the skin, for if it is thin enough that the color of the skin may be seen from behind to the extent that the whiteness or redness of the skin is percieved thane salaah in it is not allowed in that covering has not been achieved.
15. A woman not covering her head with the khimaar in salaah and not covering her feet. The ‘aurah of the swoman in the sallah is her entire body with the exception of her face. Nor is there any harm if she covers her face due to the passing by of men or the like. It is obligatory for her to wear a khimaar which is a head covering that also covers the bosom. This according to his (slallahu ‘aliahi wa sallam) statement: Allah does not accept the salaah of the menstruating female unless she is wearing a khimaar. [Collected by Ahmed and the collectors of the six most authentic books except An-Nisaa’i and it has be authenticated by Ibn Khuzaimah and others. It is also obligatory that she cover the tops of her feet in compliance with the hadeeth “The entire woman is ‘auwrah” Collected by At-Tirmidhee with an authentic isnaad. Along this same meaning is what is transmitted by Malik and abu Dawood and others from Muhammad Ibn Said Inb Qunfudh from his mother who asked Umm Salamah (radiallahu ‘anhaa), the wife of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), about what garment a woman should pray in. She answered: She should pray in a khimaar and a full, loose-fitting chemise that conceals the tops of her feet. Also with this meaning is the hadeeth of Umm Salamah: Lower it by an arms length.
1] The evidence for covering the shoulders is found in an authentic hadeeth in the collection of Abu Dawood, however we were unable to determine why the shaykh exempts one shoulder.
16. Walking in front of the praying person whether they be the imaam or praying alone and stepping over the people during the Jumua’h khutbah. It is a sin upon the person who passes in front of someone who is praying. If the one praying has no sutrah then it shold be estimated to be at the place of prostration so the passerby should can pass beyond that point. As narrated in the collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim by Abu Juhaim Ibn Haarith (radiallahu ‘anhu), who said: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: If the one who passes in front of the praying person knew how serious a sin it was for him to do so it would have been better for him to wait for forty than walk in front of him. [Forty may refer to forty days, months or years, and Allah knows best – Trans.]
The one who pushes between the people during the Jumua’h khutbah harms people through his being late for the salaah according to the statement of Al-Mustafah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): Sit for you have caused harm and come late. [Ahmed and others. Cutting between the people is forbidden. One who enters the masjid should sit where there is space unless he sees a genuinely open area where he should then go to it and sit.
17. Not saying the takbeeratul-ihraam (opening takbeer) when entering upon the congregation while the imaam is in rukoo’. This is a major mistake in that the takbeeratul-ihraam is a pillar (rukn) of the salaah that must be done by the one praying when standing for the salaah and then afterwards join the imam in the bowing position (rukoo’). To make the takbeer (al-ihraam) and then another takbeer before giong into rukoo’ is more complete and thorough. Abu Hurairah (radiallahu ‘anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would make takbeer when he stood for the sallah and would then make takbeer upon bowing.
18. Not following the imaam (by getting in the same position) when coming late and the imaam is sitting or in sujood (prostrating). It is most preferred and most sure for the one who enters the masjid that he join the imaam in whatever position he may be in, whether he be in sajdah or otherwise. It is reported by abu Dawood and others with a saheeh isnaad that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: If you come to the salaah and we are making sujood then you also make sujood. For a worshipper to delay making sajdah is to have in effect prevented himself from an act of worship which Allah loves. Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Mua’dh ibn Jabal (radiallahu ‘anhumaa) both stated: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: If one of you comes to the salaah and the imaam is in a position then do what the imaam is doing. This is collected by At-Tirmidhi with a weak isnaad however it is in agreement with the preceeding hadeeth. It is also strengthened by a narration collected by Abu Dawood from Mua’dh (radiallahu ‘anhu): I never saw him (the imaam) in a position except I was also upon it. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Verily Mua’dh has performed an act that is good for you too, so do likewise.
19. Busying oneself with matters that take one away from the salaah. This is evidence of preference of the wordly life over that of the Hereafter, following vain desires and being too busy to obey Allah. This is indeed ruination and of evil consequence to whoever does it. Allah ta’aala says: O you who believe, let not yuor wealth or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah for whyosoever does that will be among the losers. [Al-Munafiqoon 9] And He says in praise of the believers: Men who are not diverted by business or trade from the remembrance of Allah and performance of salaah. [An-Noor 37] Preoccupation with any act over the salaah or that leads to being
negligant or lazy toward it such as staying up too lateand the like, is not permissible. This is because anything that leads to what is haraam is itself haraam, and Allah is the One who guides to the right path.
20. Playing with one’s clothing or watch or the like. This is an act that negates khushoo’. The evidence for khushoo’ has been presented previously in point 5 [see August Issue – Ed.].
The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) forbade rubbing pebbles during the salaah due to its negative effect on khushoo’ when he said: If any of you performs the prayer let him not rub pebbles for mercy is turned towards him. [Ahmed and the six collections of hadeeth with an authentic isnaad] A person might increase playing around to the point of excessive movement that is outside of the salaah and thereby nullify it.
To be continued ... Insha Allah